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Jews of Lie

The machine generating the biggest conflicts after the Second World War is fed by an arsenal of ridiculous lies imposed on blood and, yes, money, a lot of money. This machine gun of lies is based on nonsense like these:

  1. The Jews are a race … LIE

  2. Jews come from Palestine … LIE

  3. It is only Jewish if the mother is Jewish … LIE

  4. The Jews dispersed in the diaspora … LIE

  5. Jewish nationalism is Jewish … LIE

  6. Judaism was not a proselytizing religion … LIE

  7. Moses took the Jews out of Egypt … LIE

  8. The Jews emigrated to Canaan … LIE

  9. David and Solomon reigned in Israel … LIE

  10. The Jews descend from the kingdom of Israel … LIE

  11. The Torah was written by the Israelites … LIE

  12. Monotheism is a religious concept … LIE

  13. The Bible is a religious work … LIE

  14. The Jewish people is an ancient concept … LIE

  15. The Jewish diaspora came after the destruction of the Temple … LIE

We could continue to spread lies about what is known about the Jews. Of the lying Jews.

First of all, we must explain the different «types» of Jews who, although they are called Jews, do not resemble each other and there are even supremacist attitudes against one another.

Most Jews belong to the Askenazi group, which accounts for 75% of the total. They are of Germanic language, Yiddish, and with their own traditions and customs. They are Jews of the German rite.

In contrast, there are the Sephardim, or Jews of the Spanish rite, which include both the Sephardi of origin in the Iberian Peninsula and those from the Levant, the Middle East and the Maghreb, the Mizraim, who adopted this rite of the Sephardic Jews when they left. from Spain and Portugal and merged with these communities.

The Yiddish language is more than 1,000 years old and incorporates German, Slavic and Hebrew elements. The prevailing view states that Yiddish has a German origin, while the opposite view postulates a Slavic origin with strong Iranian and weak Turkish substrates. One of the main difficulties in deciding between these hypotheses is the unknown geographical origin of Ashkenazi Jews of Yiddish (AY) speech.

An analysis of 393 Ashkenazi, Iranian and mountain Jews and more than 600 non-Jewish genomes showed that the Greeks, Romans, Iranians and Turks exhibit the greatest genetic similarity to the AY. The Geographic Population Structure analysis located most of the AJ along the main primary trade routes in northeastern Turkey adjacent to the primitive villages with names that can be derived from «Ashkenaz».

The Iranian and mountain Jews were located along the shops on the eastern border of Turkey. The loss of maternal haplogroups was evident in the YA that did not speak Yiddish. Our results suggest that the AY originated from a Slavic-Iranian confederation, which the Jews call «Ashkenazic» (ie «Scythian»), although these Jews probably spoke Persian and / or Ossetian. This is consistent with linguistic evidence suggesting that Yiddish is a Slavic language created by Jewish-Turkish-Slavic Jewish merchants along the Silk Road as a cryptic business language, spoken only by its creators to gain an advantage on trade.

Later, in the ninth century, Yiddish underwent relexification by adopting a new vocabulary consisting of a minority of German and Hebrew and a majority of newly-coined Germanic and hebroid elements that replaced most of the original Eastern Slavic vocabularies and sorbios (The Sorbs are a Western Slavic people recognized in Germany as a national minority, in Upper and Lower Lusatia in the federated states of Saxony and Brandenburg), keeping the original grammars intact.

Language is the atom of a community, the molecule that unites its history, culture, behavior and identity, and the compound that unites its geography and genetics. Therefore, it is not surprising that the origin of the AY remains the most enigmatic and least explored topic in history.Since the linguistic approaches used to answer this question have so far provided inconclusive results, we analyzed Yiddish and non-Yiddish YA genomes in search of their geographical origins. We tracked almost all the AYs to the main primary trade routes in northeastern Turkey adjacent to the primitive villages, whose names may be derived from «Ashkenaz». We conclude that the YA probably originated during the first millennium when the Iranian Jews Judaized the Greco-Roman, Turkish, Iranian, South Caucasus and Slavic populations that inhabited the Ashkenaz lands in Turkey. Our findings imply that Yiddish was created by Slavic-Iranian merchants of Jewish religion who travel the silk routes between Germany, North Africa and China.

This clashes head-on with the lie that sustains what they believe they are: a people that, although dispersed, share an ethnic-racial bond rooted in their common ancestral ancestry of the indigenous Jews of ancient Judea or Palestine, as the Romans called it after conquering the Jewish homeland.

It was Elhaik, an Israeli Jew from Beer Sheva, a postdoctoral researcher at Johns Hopkins University, who has demonstrated that the roots of Ashkenazi Jews are found in the Caucasus – a region on the European and Asian border that lies between the Black seas and Caspian – not in the Middle East. They are descendants, according to him, of the Khazars, a Turkish people who lived in one of the largest medieval states in Eurasia, who became en masse to Judaism in the eighth century and emigrated to Eastern Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

The widespread conversion by the Khazars is the only way to explain the explosive expansion of the European Jewish population to 8 million at the beginning of the 20th century from its small medieval base. The accounts maintain that the few Jews who emigrated from the Middle East to Central Europe began to make children compulsively.

The genetic data published by a team of researchers led by Doron Behar, a population geneticist and chief doctor of the Rambam Medical Center in Israel, in Haifa shows that, on the contrary, the Mizrahi Jews are closely related to other non-Jewish populations of the Levant. , or of the Eastern Mediterranean.

«Before, to say that the Jews were a race was anti-Semitic, now to say that they are not a race is anti-Semitic,» when what really happens is that the YY, Ashkenazi-speaking Yiddish of Turkish origin are oppressing the Palestinian Semites. In short, it turns out that three out of four Jews are not Semites, but simply anti-Semites.

Another obvious proof of the genetic differences is the Mongol spot.

Mongolian spot (MM), also called congenital dermal melanocytosis, usually appears at birth or during the first weeks of life. It increases in the first 2 years and then disappears gradually. At 10 years of age, most of these spots have subsided; if the stain remains in adulthood, it is called persistent MM (3-4% of Orientals). Its frequency, similar in both sexes, varies among different racial groups. The term «Mongolian spot» is due to its high frequency in Eastern races, especially in the Mongols, who appear in 90% of newborns.

Clinically, it appears as one or several maculae of angular, round or oval morphology. The size varies between 1 and 20 cm and the edges are ill-defined (the larger ones are better defined). They have a homogeneous blue-gray coloration that is not accentuated in Wood’s lamp exploration.In people with dark skin it adopts a greenish tone. The classic location is the lumbosacral region and the buttocks. It is known as aberrant MM when it occurs in atypical areas, such as the back, shoulders, scalp and extremities. This is more likely to persist into adulthood.

Percentage of babies born with Mongolian spot according to the origin:

  1. Asian ethnicity, between 85 to 90% of newborn babies.

  2. Black breed between 85 to 90% of newborn babies.

  3. Native Americans, between 80 to 85% of newborn babies.

  4. This one in Africa, (in this area of ​​Africa decreases the number of cases for the black race), between 80 to 85% of newborn babies.

  5. South America, about 45% of newborn babies.

  6. Europe, Mediterranean area, about 40% of births.

  7. Rest of Europe, in 20% of births.

  8. Caucasian race, from 5 to 10% of cases, being the least affected.

The Mongol spot was detected in the area of ​​Mongolia (between East and Central Asia) by Erwin Bälz in the 19th century, and he is the one who baptized it as «Mongolian spot» because of the area where I detected it and because it was more common in this area than other parts of the world. At the moment the index has varied increasing in the black race equaling thus to the Asians.

Well, the AY do not have MM, while it is prevalent in the populations of the Middle East and among the Mizraim Jews.

Therefore, most Jews do not come from Palestine, and in the past there have been massive processes of Judeization, such as that of the Khazars, and also during the Roman Empire. There was no such diaspora as is said, but the Jews who appear scattered along the shores of the Mediterranean are mostly people who embraced the Jewish religion.

Jewish nationalism is an Ashkenazi fashion contagious of German romantic nationalism with which it shared physical space in the nineteenth century, with the difference that they set their eyes on Palestine as a land of «return» or national home. It is impossible to return to where you have never been (you could return to the Turkmen Central Asian steppes or so), but romanticism has what it has. This idea has turned out to be a bad idea, dangerous and that has brought death, destruction and poverty to humanity. There is also born the idea of ​​»anti-Semitism» without Semites, another curious lie.

These lies, grouped in what is called «Zionism» whose founders are anti-Semitic Khazars rely on the monetary dominance that gives them being the owners almost exclusively of the Federal Reserve. This is a club of private banks, almost all Khazars, and that holds the sovereignty of money in the United States. They are the owners of the American dollar, a currency whose value is determined by the obligatory nature of its use for the world oil trade and supported by the military might of the United States.

On the other hand, being the largest owners of the debt of the United States serves to keep them kidnapped and parasitized in that country, and is the reason for their immense volume and growth. It is not surprising that Khazar members in the Government and in Congress are the majority, being a marginal minority population.

Contrary to modern conceptions, from the second century BC to the beginning of the fourth century AD, Judaism was a proselytizing religion, dynamic and expanding, and currently there is no data that can contradict this. The withdrawal of the community was a much later phenomenon, when the persistence of the Jewish minorities, within the now dominant Christian and Islamic worlds, was contingent upon the complete cessation of any proselytizing work, but, in the «pagan» regions, the Judaism continued to attract new followers and this brings us to the subject of the Khazars.

Every modern nation-state has a narrative of its origins, transmitted both by official and popular culture; among such national histories, however, few have been as scandalous and controversial as the Israeli national myth is. The well-known story of the Jewish diaspora of the first century AD and the claim of a cultural and racial continuity of the Jewish people to this day resonate beyond the borders of Israel. Despite their abusive employment to justify the settlement of Jews in Palestine and the Great Israel project, very little academic research has been done on their historical accuracy.Shlomo Sand wrote the Israeli bestseller «The Invention of the Jewish People» where it shows that the national myth of Israel sinks its origins in the 19th century, not in the biblical times in which many historians-Jews and non-Jews-reconstructed an imagined people with the purpose of modeling a future nation. In it, Sand reveals the construction of the nationalist myth and the consequent collective mystification.

The great historian Marc Bloch described the Jews as a «group of coreligionists originally assembled from every corner of the Mediterranean, Turkish-Khazar and Slavic worlds.»

The question must be posed: the slow emergence of increasingly extensive and reliable lines of communication through which populations began to be forged as peoples, in the context of centralizing realms and early nation-states, created a Jewish people?

The answer is no. With the exception of Eastern Europe, where the demographic weight and the exceptionally distinctive structure of Jewish life jázara fed a specific form of popular culture and vernacular language, no Jewish people ever appeared as a single, cohesive entity.

The Bund party, which represented one of the «protonational» expressions of the Jewish population of Eastern Europe, understood that the borders of the people, whom it sought to represent and defend, coincided with those of the Yiddish (AY) language. Moreover, it is interesting to note that the first Zionists in Western Europe set aside Palestine to place the Jews of the Yiddish (YY) world, and not for themselves; they in turn sought to be authentic English, Germans, French or Americans, and even passionately joined the national wars of their respective countries.

If in the past there was no such thing as a Jewish people, in modern times Zionism has succeeded in creating one? In all parts of the world where nations were formed, in other words, in all the parts where human groups claimed sovereignty or fought to preserve it, peoples were invented and endowed with long antecedents and distant historical origins. The Zionist movement did the same. But, if Zionism succeeded in imagining an eternal people, it failed to create a world Jewish nation. Currently, Jews everywhere have the option of emigrating to Israel, but most of them have chosen not to live under Jewish sovereignty and prefer to retain another nationality.

If Zionism has not created a world Jewish people, let alone a Jewish nation, however, it has given birth to two peoples, and even two new nations that it unfortunately refuses to recognize as illegitimate offspring.

There is a Palestinian people, a direct creation of colonization, who aspires to their own sovereignty and desperately struggles for what is left of their native land. And there is also an Israeli people totally willing to defend their national independence with total commitment.

The latter, unlike the Palestinian people today, does not enjoy any kind of recognition, even though it has its own language, a general education system and an artistic heritage in literature, cinema and theater that expresses a vigorous and dynamic secular culture.

Zionists around the world can make donations to Israel and pressure the governments of their countries in support of Israeli policy, but mostly they do not understand the language of the nation that is supposed to be theirs, they abstain from joining the «people who have emigrated to their homeland »and declined to send their children to take part in the wars in the Middle East. Today, the number of Israelis who emigrate to Western countries is greater than that of Zionists who settle in Israel. We also know that, had they been able to choose at the time, the vast majority of Jews who left the USSR had moved directly to the United States, as did the Yiddish-speaking Jews a century ago.

Would the State of Israel have come to light if the United States had not closed its borders to migrants from Central and Eastern Europe in the 1920s, a policy implacably maintained in the following decade against refugees fleeing from Nazi persecution, and still in the post-World War II period, towards Jews escaping from Europe?

Well, no. There would have been no Holocaust or Jews to relocate, and they would all be in the United States.

The Middle East is currently the most dangerous region in the world for those who consider themselves Jews. Among the reasons for this is the refusal of the Zionists to the existence of an Israeli people, whom they consider simply as the bridgehead of a «Jewish people» committed to a colonization that must continue, and to which the Zionists prefer to involve themselves in a self-centered ethnocentric ideology.

The Jewish people, like many others, base their identity on their founding myth, according to which Moses coerced the Egyptian pharaoh to free the enslaved Jews and took them on a 40-year march through the desert to Canaan. And like all foundational myth is a lie. For starters, there is no archaeological trace or any writing on this subject, in a culture like the Egyptian that recorded every last bag of wheat in a freight. But the most hilarious are not the 40 years of desert (which today are covered in 15 hours of car or 3 days walking according to Google Maps) but in the eleventh century BC, the pretended time of the Exodus, Canaan was dominated by the still powerful pharaohs Does this mean that Moses led the freed slaves out of Egypt … to take them to Egypt? You can not escape if you do not even bother to leave,

According to the biblical narrative, the people who for forty years led through the desert included 600,000 warriors, who would travel with their wives and children, which is a group of around three million people. Apart from the fact that it was completely impossible for a population of this size to wander so long in the desert, an event of such magnitude must have left some epigraphic or archaeological traces. The ancient Egyptians carried a meticulous record of each event and there is a large amount of documentation about the political and military life of the kingdom. There are even documents about nomadic group incursions. However, there is not a single mention about any kind of «Children of Israel» who lived in Egypt or who rebelled against him, or who left the country at some point.

In the Sinai desert no traces of any significant movement of population have been found during that period, and the location of the famous and biblical » Mount Sinai » has yet to be discovered. Etzion-Gever and Arad, mentioned in the account of Jewish wanderings, did not exist in that period and appeared much later as prosperous permanent settlements.

After «wandering for forty years,» the Children of Israel came to Canaan and took him by assault. Following the divine orders, they annihilated the majority of the local population and forced those who remained to serve as lumberjacks and water carriers. After the conquest, the people who had remained united under Moses were divided into separate tribes (like the last Greek settlements in 12 City-States) and the territorial booty was divided among them. This ruthless settlement myth, described in the Book of Joshua with colorful details as one of the first genocides, never happened in reality. The famous conquest of Canaan was the next myth to fall with the skirmishes of the new archeology.

For a long time, Zionist historians, accompanied by Israeli archaeologists, ignored well-known findings. If at the time of the supposed Israeli conquest the country was ruled by Egypt, how is it that there is not a single Egyptian document that mentions it? Also, why does the Bible make no mention of the Egyptian presence in the country? The archaeological excavations carried out in Gaza and Beth Shean had already revealed the Egyptian presence in the times of the supposed conquest and after it, but the old national text was too precious to renounce it, and scholars learned to cover up these problematic inconveniences with evasive and vague explanations.

New excavations in Jericho, that powerful walled city that the Children of Israel supposedly captured with trumpet fanfare, confirmed that by the end of the 12th century BC, Jericho was an insignificant hamlet, without walls of course. The same happens with most of the other cities mentioned in the story of the conquest. Traces of destruction and fire have been found in Hazor, Lachish and Megiddo, but the collapse of these old Canaanite cities was a slow process that lasted a century and was probably caused by the arrival of «the peoples of the sea,» like the Philistines , that at that time invaded all the Eastern littoral of the Mediterranean as it testifies an abundant Egyptian documentation and of other sources.

New Israeli archaeologists and researchers were less concerned with political exploration oriented towards the event and more by socioanthropological research, conducting regional research and exploring ancient living conditions, means of production and worship practices in large areas-and they showed a certain number. of discoveries and new working hypotheses regarding colonization in the highlands of Canaan. In the lowlands, after the decline of the Canaanite cities, local nomads probably settled in the land and gradually and with many intermediate stages formed sedentary agricultural communities. The initial population from which the kingdoms of Israel and Judea would gradually emerge was probably the Canaanite autochthonous population, which slowly emerged from under the Egyptian rulers as they withdrew from the country between the 12th and 10th centuries BCE. The pottery and work tools of these new peasants were no different from those of other Canaanites, except in one cultural feature: the absence of pig bones in their settlements.

This is a significant fact, but it does not indicate either the conquest of Canaan by a foreign ethnos or that these farmers were monotheistic. The development of scattered communities of cultivators, which produced the rise of cities based on their production, was a long and extremely gradual process that culminated in the appearance of two small local kingdoms.

As a result of the new archaeological discoveries the following biblical account in losing its scientific historicity was the jewel in the crown of the long national memory. From Graetz, through Dinur and the Israelite historians who came next, the united national kingdom of David and Solomon was the glorious golden age of Jewish history. All future political models were fed by this paragon of the biblical past and removed from it imagery, conceptualization and intellectual euphoria. The new novels integrated it in their plots; Poems and plays were written about the imposing Saul, the valiant David and the wise Solomon. The excavators discovered the remains of their palaces, and detailed maps completed the historical panorama and drew the borders of the united empire that stretched from the Euphrates to the border of Egypt.

Then came the archaeologists and scholars of the Bible after 1967, who began to question the very existence of this powerful kingdom that, according to the Bible, grew rapidly after the period of the Judges.Excavations in Jerusalem in the 1970s – that is, after the city had been «reunified forever» by the Israeli government – weakened the fantasies about the glorious past. It was not possible to dig under the Haram al-Sharif, but the explorations in the rest of the places around it failed to find any trace of an important tenth-century kingdom, the supposed time of David and Solomon. No vestige of monumental structures, walls or grand palaces was ever found, and the pottery that appeared was sparse and quite simple. At first it was argued that the continued occupation of the city and the massive construction in the reign of Herod had destroyed the remains, but this reasoning collapsed when impressive traces of earlierperiods of Jerusalem’s history were uncovered.

Other alleged remnants of the United Kingdom also began to be questioned. The Bible describes Solomon’s reconstruction of the cities of the north, Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer, and the archaeologist Yigael Yadin placed the city of Solomon the Wise in the great structures of Hazor. He also found palaces from the time of the United Kingdom in Megiddo, and discovered the famous Solomonic doors in the three ancient cities.Unfortunately, it was later found that the architectural style of these doors was later than the tenth century BC; They looked a lot like the vestiges of a palace built in Samaria in the 9th century. The technological advance of the carbon 14 test confirmed that the colossal structures of the area dated not from the kingdom of Solomon but from the time of the kingdom of northern Israel. Actually, no trace of the existence of that legendary king has been found, whose wealth is described in the Bible comparable to that of the powerful imperial rulers of Babylon or Persia.

The inevitable and problematic conclusion was that, if there was a political entity in the 10th century Judea, it was a small tribal kingdom, and that Jerusalem was a fortified stronghold. It is possible that the tiny kingdom was ruled by a dynasty known as the house of David. An inscription discovered in Tell Dan in 1933 supports this assumption, but this kingdom of Judea was much smaller than the kingdom of Israel to the north, and apparently much less developed.

The documents of el-Amarna, dating back to the 14th century BC, indicate that there were already two small city-states in the highlands of Canaan -Shechem and Jerusalem- and the stele of Merneptah shows that at the end of the 13th century BC the north of Canaan an entity called Israel. The abundant archaeological finds unearthed in the West Bank during the 1980s reveal the social and material differences between the two mountainous regions. Agriculture flourished in the fertile north supporting dozens of settlements, while in the south there were only a score of small villages in the 10th and 9th centuries BC The kingdom of Israel was already a stable and strong state in the 9th century, while the kingdom of Judah was only consolidated and strengthened at the end of the eighth. In Canaan there were always two distinct and rival entities, although they were culturally and linguistically related; the inhabitants of both spoke variants of the ancient Hebrew.

The kingdom of Israel under the Omri dynasty was clearly greater than the kingdom of Judea under the house of David. The first is the one with the oldest extrabiblical evidence: the inscription of the so-called Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III of Assyria, the famous Mesha stela and the inscription found in Tell Dan. All the great structures previously attributed to Solomon were in fact later projects of the kingdom of Israel. At its peak, it was one of the most populous and prosperous kingdoms of the land between Damascus in the north, Moab in the east, the Mediterranean Sea in the west and the kingdom of Judea in the south.

Archaeological excavations at various sites have also shown that the inhabitants of the mountainous northern region, like the peasants of Judea, were polytheistic devotees. They worshiped the popular Yahweh, who gradually became, like the Greek Zeus and the Roman Jupiter, the central deity. but they did not renounce the cult of other divinities, such as Baal, Shemesh and the beautiful Asherah.

That is, Yahweh was the main god of a typical polytheistic pantheon.

The authors of the Pentateuch, who were fierce monotheistic Judaes very late, detested the rulers of Israel, but envied their legendary power and glory. They stole his prestigious name – » Israel » – which was probably well established, although they never stopped denouncing his moral and religious transgressions.

Of course, the great sin of the people and the rulers of Israel was the fact that their kingdom was defeated by the Assyrian Empire in the second half of the seventh century BCE, that is, long before the fall of Judea in the SAW. In addition, they did not leave agents of divine remembrance with whom to dress their ardent religion with attractive pseudohistorical garments.

The conclusion accepted by a majority of the new archaeologists and scholars of the Bible was that there never was a great united monarchy, and that King Solomon never had great palaces in which to house his 700 wives and 300 concubines. The fact that the Bible does not name this great empire strengthens this conclusion. It was later writers who invented and glorified a powerful united kingdom, established by the grace of a «One Godhead.»

His fertile and distinctive imagination also produced the famous stories about the creation of the world and the terrible flood, the wanderings of the ancestors and the struggle of Jacob with the angel, the exodus from Egypt and the separation of the waters of the Red Sea, the conquest of Canaan and the miraculous stop of the sun in Gibeon.

The central myths about the original origin of a wonderful nation that emerged from the desert, that conquered a spacious land and that raised a glorious kingdom, lent a great help to the growing Jewish nationalism and Zionist colonization. For a century they provided a textual fuel of canonical quality that fed a complex politics of identity and territorial expansion that demanded self-justification and considerable sacrifices.

Archaeologists and biblical scholars, in Israel and beyond, undermined these myths, which at the end of the 20th century seemed to be on the verge of being relegated to the category of fictions with an insurmountable gap between them and real history. But, although the Israeli society was no longer so committed, and so in need of the historical legitimation that had sustained its creation and its very existence, it still had difficulties accepting the new findings and the public stubbornly resisted the change of direction in the investigation. .

In short, the Israelites did not arrive in Canaan, but were already there in the 12th century BCE, sharing space with the Canaanites. The Israelite villages are distinguished from the Canaanites in that no remains of pig bones were found. The pig was the food taboo of the proto-Israelites and what distinguishes them from the rest of the tribes in the area that consumed large quantities of pigs. This is the first identity taboo that still remains today.

The fall of the Canaanite kingdom caused the Israelites to simply occupy the Canaanite cities, in what was the germ of the kingdom of Israel to the north, which flourished on the basis of agriculture in its fertile valleys, in front of the Jews that did not exceed they were primitive semi-nomadic tribal groups that only resorted to agriculture in times of crisis when they could not change their cattle for grain.

The Assyrian invasion of northern Canaan destroyed the kingdom of Israel and gave the Jews the opportunity to expand and grow economically.

As it happened in other kingdoms of the region, the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judea are more likely to leave detailed administrative chronicles and boastful inscriptions of victories made by obedient scribes of the court, such as the biblical Shapan, son of Azaliah. We do not know and we will never know what those chronicles contained, but in all probability some were kept in archives of the kingdoms that survived, and after the fall of the kingdom of Judea the authors of the books of the Bible used them, with amazing creativity, as raw material to compose the most influential texts of the birth of monotheism in the Middle East. To these chronicles they added some parables, legends and myths that circulated among the intellectual elites throughout the region, and produced a fascinating critical discourse on the status of the earthly ruler from the point of view of a divine sovereignty.

In the sixth century BCE, the agitation of exile and «return» may have allowed the educated Jewish elite-former court scribes, priests and their offspring-greater autonomy than they could have had under a direct monarchy dynastic A historical contingency of political breakdown and the resulting absence of a demanding authority gave it a new and exceptional opportunity to act. In this way a field of unique literary creativity was born, whose great reward is not found in power but in religion. Only a similar * situation could explain, for example, how it was possible to sing praises to the founder of the dynasty (David) and at the same time describe him as a sinner punished by a superior being divine. Only thus the freedom of expression, so rare in pre-modern societies, produced a work of theological art.

We can therefore propose the following hypotheses: the exclusionary monotheism that stands out in almost every page of the Bible was not the result of politics-of the policy of a lesser king who sought to expand his kingdom-but of culture. It was the result of the exceptional encounter between the Jewish intellectual elites, in exile or returning from exile, and the Persian abstract religions.

The source of monotheism is probably in an advanced intellectual system, but it was removed from it and, like many revolutionary ideologies throughout history, was leaked to the margins by the political pressure of the conservative center. It is not by chance that the Hebrew word dai(religion) is of Persian origin. This first monotheism would be completely developed with his later encounter with Hellenistic polytheism.

Monotheism found utility as Judean political chicanery to achieve political cohesion and isolation.

The theory of the Copenhagen school proposes that, in effect, the Bible is not a book but a large library, written, revised and adapted over the course of three centuries, from the end of the sixth century to the beginning of the second century BC It should be read as a multi-layered literary construction of religious and philosophical nature or as theological parables that sometimes employ quasi-historical descriptions with educational intentions, especially aimed at future generations (since the system of divine punishment often penalizes descendants for the transgressions of their ancestors).

Its diverse and remote authors and editors sought to create a coherent religious community, and generously resorted to the glorious policies of the past to prepare a stable and lasting future for a center of worship in Jerusalem. Concerned about isolating him from the idolatrous population, they invented the category of Israel as a sacred, chosen town, whose origins were elsewhere, unlike Canaan, a local anti-village of lumberjacks and water carriers.

The textual and group appropriation of the name of Israel was perhaps due to their rivalry with the Samaritans who saw themselves as the heirs of the kingdom of Israel.

This literary policy of self-isolation, which began to develop between the «small province of Yahud» and the centers of higher culture in Babylon, fit in well with the global identity policy of the Persian Empire, whose rulers took the trouble to separate communities, classes and linguistic groups to maintain control of their vast possessions.

Some of the leaders, judges, heroes, kings, priests and prophets (especially the latter) who populate the Bible may have been historical figures. But his time, his relationships, his motives, his real power, the boundaries of his mandate, his influence and the form of worship-that is, what really matters in history-were the product of a later imagination. Similarly, the intellectual and religious consumers of the biblical story cycles-in particular the first communities of the Jewish faith-formed much later.

Knowing the work of Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, tells us little about ancient Rome but much about the England of the late sixteenth century and that is its value. Our attitude toward the Bible should be the same. It is not a narrative that can instruct us about the times it describes, but an admirable didactic theological discourse, as well as a possible testimony about the times in which it was composed. It would be a more reliable historical document if we knew with greater certainty when each of its parts were written.

For a long time the Bible has been considered by the three monotheistic cultures – Judaism, Christianity and Islam – as a work inspired by divinity, evidence of the manifestation and pre-eminence of God. With the rise of nationalism in modern times, it began to be considered more and more as a work elaborated by human beings as a reconstruction of its past. Even in pre-nationalist Protestant England, and still more among the Puritan settlers of North America and South Africa, the book became, through anachronism and fervent imagination, a certain kind of ideal model for the formation of a religious community. modern politics. In the past, Jewish believers tended not to delve into it, but with the rise of Jewish enlightenment a growing number of cultivated individuals began to read the Bible under a secular prism.

However, it was only the emergence of Jewish pre-nationalist historiography that gave the Bible a leading role in the drama of the rise of the modern Jewish nation. The book was transferred from the book of theological treatises to the history section, and the adherents of Jewish nationalism began to read it as if it were a reliable testimony of processes and events. It was truly elevated to the status of mitohistory, representing an incontrovertible truth. It became the center of secular sanctity that should not be touched and from which all consideration of people and nation should begin.

Above all, the Bible became an ethnic marker that indicated the common origin of individuals from different backgrounds and secular cultures, although all of them were hated for following a religion they barely observed. That was the meaning that underlay in this image of an ancient nation, that went back almost until the Creation, and that was recorded in the minds of people who felt dislocated by the turbulence of modernity. It was recorded in his consciousness of the past. The cozy bosom of the Bible, in spite of its miraculous and legendary character (or, perhaps, thanks to him), could provide a long, almost eternal sense of belonging; something that the vortex of the present could not give them.

In this way, the Bible became a secular book that children in school read to learn about their ancestors, children who would later march proudly as soldiers, fighting in wars of colonization and independence.

The Bible is a political work whose purpose is political and where religion is used to give legitimacy and political coherence and has played this role over time.

The last time it was used for this purpose, it resulted in the invention of the Jewish people.

A close examination of the historical event that apparently engendered the «second exile» in 70 AD, together with an analysis of the Hebrew term golah(exile) and its connotation in later Hebrew, indicates that national historical consciousness was a mosaic of disparate events and traditional elements. Only thus could it function as an effective myth that gave modern Jews a path to ethnic identity. The ultraparadigm of deportation was essential for the construction of a long-term memory in which an imaginary exiled people-race could be described as a direct descendant of a previous «people of the Bible.» As we will see, the myth of uprooting and exile was fostered by the Christian tradition from which it derived to the Jewish tradition, and grew to be the truth recorded in history, both general and national.

The first thing to note is that the Romans never deported entire peoples, nor did the Assyrians and Babylonians do so. It was not worth it to uproot the people of the land, those who produced the food, those who paid taxes.But even the effective policy of deportation practiced by the Assyrian Empire, and later by the Babylonian one – with which entire sections of the administrative and cultural elite were deported – was not continued by the Roman Empire. Here and there in the western countries of the Mediterranean, local agricultural communities were displaced to make room for the establishment of Roman soldiers, but this exceptional policy was not applied in the Middle East. The Roman rulers could be completely ruthless in suppressing rebellions of subject populations: they executed the combatants, took captives and sold them as slaves, and sometimes sent into exile kings and princes. But in no way did they deport entire populations from the countries of the East that they conquered; they did not have the means to do so either, the trucks, trains, or large ships available in the modern world.

Flavius ​​Josephus, who wrote the history of the Zealot rebellion of AD 66, is almost the only source of this exile, apart from the archaeological finds dating back to that time, and his book, The Wars of the Jews , describes the tragic result of that period of conflicts. The devastation did not spread throughout the kingdom of Judea, but mainly affected Jerusalem and several other fortified cities. Josephus calculated that, in the siege of Jerusalem, and in the great massacre that followed, 1.1 million people died, another 97,000 were taken prisoner and thousands more died in other cities.

Like all ancient historians, Josephus tended to exaggerate his numbers.Currently, most researchers consider that practically all the demographic figures of antiquity are exaggerated, and that a good part has a numerological meaning. Josephus states that before the uprising a large number of pilgrims had gathered in Jerusalem, but the assumption that more than a million people died is not credible. The population of the city of Rome at the top of the Empire, in the second century AD, may have approximated the size of a modern medium-sized conurbation, but in the small kingdom of Judea there was no such metropolis. A prudent estimate suggests that Jerusalem at that time may have had a population of 60,000 to 70,000.

Even if we accept the unrealistic figure of 70,000 prisoners, it still does not mean that, after destroying the Temple, the evil Tito expelled the «Jewish people.» In Rome, the great Arch of Titus shows Roman soldiers carrying the candelabra of the Temple as booty; no, as is taught in Israeli schools, to Jewish prisoners taking them on their way to exile. Nowhere in the abundant Roman documentation is a deportation from Judea mentioned.Nor has there been any trace of large refugee populations by the edges of Judea after the uprising, as there would have been if there had been a mass flight.

We do not know exactly the size of the population of Judea before the Zealot rebellion and the war against Rome, but the whole area could not support more than a million inhabitants.

The wars of annihilation against the Zealots and their uprising against the Romans dealt great blows to the country, and the demoralization of the cultural elites after the destruction of the Temple must have been profound. It is also probable that the population of Jerusalem and its surroundings was diminished for a time. But, as has already been said, the population was not expelled and did not take long to recover economically.Archaeological discoveries have shown that Josephus exaggerated the devastation and that by the end of the first century AD several cities had recovered their population. In addition, the Jewish religious culture was about to enter into one of its most admirable and fruitful periods.Unfortunately, there is little information about the systems of political relations during this period.

We also have little information about the second monotheistic revolt that shook the history of Judea in the second century AD. The uprising that broke out in the year 132, during the reign of Emperor Hadrian and popularly known as the rebellion of Bar Kokhba, is briefly mentioned by the Roman historian Dio Cassius and by Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea and author of Ecclesiastical History. Echoes of this event appear in Jewish religious texts, as well as in archaeological finds. But unfortunately at that time there was not a historian of the stature of Josephus, so that any reconstruction of events can only be fragmentary.

Therefore, the question arises: would it be that the traditional story of the expulsion was due to the traumatic consequences of that rebellion?

When describing the end of the rebellion, Dio Cassius wrote:

«50 of its most important strongholds and 985 of its most famous towns were destroyed. Five hundred and eighty thousand men were killed in the various assaults and battles, and it is difficult to know the number of those who perished by hunger, disease and fire. Thus, almost the whole of Judea was devastated. «